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   IndiaRubberDirectory.com > Rubber Engineering > Rubber Properties

General characteristics of common polymers

 

Buna-N

Neoprene

Common Names

Buna-N, Nitrile, NBR

Neoprene

 

 

 

ASTM D-2000 Classification

BF, BG, BK

BC, BE

Military (MIL STD 417)

SB

SC

Chemical Definition

Butadiene Acrylonitrile

Polychloroprene

 

 

 

General Characteristics

 

 

Durometer Range (Shore A)

20 - 95

20 - 95

Tensile Range (P.S.I.)

200 - 3000

500 - 3000

Elongation (Max %)

600

600

Compression Set

Good

Good

Resilience - Rebound

Good

Excellent

Abrasion Resistance

Excellent

Excellent

Tear Resistance

Good

Good

Solvent Resistance

Good to Excellent

Fair

Oil Resistance

Good to Excellent

Fair

Low Temperature Usage (F)

+30 to -40

+10 to -50

High Temperature Usage (F)

to 250

to 250

Aging Weather - Sunlight

Poor

Good

Adhesion to Metals

Good to Excellent

Good to Excellent

 

 

 

Comment

Nitrile (Buna-N) is a general purpose oil resistant polymer which has good solvent, oil, water and hydraulic fluid resistance, good compression set, abrasion resistance and tensile strength.

Nitrile should not be used in highly polar solvents such as acetone and MEK, ozone, chlorinated hydrocarbons and nitro hydrocarbons.

Neoprene is an all purpose polymer with many desirable characteristics. It has additional plus features: high resilience with low compression set; flame resistant; compounds free of sulfur are easily made; and animal and vegetable oil resistant generally not affected by moderate chemicals, fats, greases and many oils and solvents.

Neoprene is generally attacked by strong oxidizing acids, esters, ketones, chlorinated aromatic and nitro hydrocarbons.

 

 

 

 

EPR

 

Silicone

Common Names

EPR, EPT, EPDM

 

Silicone

 

 

 

ASTM D-2000 Classification

CA

FC, FE, GE

Military (MIL STD 417)

RS

TA

Chemical Definition

Ethylene Propylene

 

Polysiloxane

 

 

 

General Characteristics

 

 

Durometer Range (Shore A)

30 - 90

30 -90

Tensile Range (P.S.I.)

500 -3000

200 - 1500

Elongation (Max %)

600

700

Compression Set

Good

Good

Resilience - Rebound

Good

Good

Abrasion Resistance

Good

Fair to Poor

Tear Resistance

Fair

Poor

Solvent Resistance

Poor

Poor

Oil Resistance

Poor

Fair to Poor

Low Temperature Usage (F)

-20 to -60

-60 to -150

High Temperature Usage (F)

to 350

to 450

Aging Weather - Sunlight

Excellent

Excellent

Adhesion to Metals

Fair to Good

Good

 

 

 

Comment

Ethylene Propylene is a polymer with outstanding properties. It has exceptionally good weather aging and ozone resistance; excellent water and chemical resistance; excellent resistance to gas permeability and excellent resistance to aging due to exposure to steam; and heat resistance excellent up to 350F. Ethylene Propylene is a polymer where oil and solvent resistance is poor, however, it is fairly good in ketones and alcohols.

Ethylene Propylene is not recommended for food applications or exposure to aromatic hydrcarbons.

Silicone Rubber has a great many variations and can be compounded to meet any number of applications. Silicone can be compounded to have tensile in the area of 1500 PSI and tear upto 200 lbs.; low compression set and good resilience; moderate solvent resistance; excellent heat resistance; good release characteristics; extreme low temperature properties; and can be highly resistant to oxidation and ozone attack

Silicone is generally attacked by most concentrated solvents, oils, concentrated acids and dilute sodium hyrdoxide..

 

 

 

 

Fluorosilicone

Fluoro Elastomers

Common Names

Fluorosilicone

Fluoro Elastomers

 

 

 

ASTM D-2000 Classification

FK

HK

Military (MIL STD 417)

MIL-R-25988, Ammend. 2

MIL-R-25897 and MIL-R-83248

Chemical Definition

Fluorosilicone

Fluorinated Hydrocarbon

 

 

 

General Characteristics

 

 

Durometer Range (Shore A)

50 - 80

60 - 90

Tensile Range (P.S.I.)

500 - 800

500 - 2000

Elongation (Max %)

300

300

Compression Set

Good

Good

Resilience - Rebound

Excellent

Fair

Abrasion Resistance

Poor

Good

Tear Resistance

Poor

Good

Solvent Resistance

Fair

Excellent

Oil Resistance

Good

Excellent

Low Temperature Usage (F)

-80

+10 to -10

High Temperature Usage (F)

300

400 to 600 depending on time and service condition

Aging Weather - Sunlight

Excellent

Excellent

Adhesion to Metals

Poor

Good

 

 

 

Comment

Fluorosilicone is considerably more expensive than silicone, however it is developed for special applications where general resistance to oxidizing chemical, aromatic and chlorinated solvent bases is required.

Fluorosilicone is not recommended and is generally attacked when exposed to brake fluids, hydrazine and ketones. Fluorosilicone should not be confused with silicone in regard to high heat resistance.

Fluoro Elastomers have high heat resistance up to 600F, and resistance to a wide reange of oils and solvents; especially all aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, acids, animal and vegetable oils.

Fluoro Elastomers are not recommended for ketones, low molecular weight esters and nitro containing compounds.

 

 

 

 

Natural Rubber

SBR

Common Names

Natural Rubber

SBR, GRS

 

 

 

ASTM D-2000 Classification

AA

AA, BA

Military (MIL STD 417)

RN

RS

Chemical Definition

Polyisoprene

Styrene Butadiene

 

 

 

General Characteristics

 

 

Durometer Range (Shore A)

20 - 100

30 - 100

Tensile Range (P.S.I.)

500 - 3500

500 - 3000

Elongation (Max %)

700

600

Compression Set

Excellent

Good

Resilience - Rebound

Excellent

Good

Abrasion Resistance

Excellent

Excellent

Tear Resistance

Excellent

Fair

Solvent Resistance

Poor

Poor

Oil Resistance

Poor

Poor

Low Temperature Usage (F)

-20 to -60

0 to -50

High Temperature Usage (F)

to 175

to 225

Aging Weather - Sunlight

Poor

Poor

Adhesion to Metals

Excellent

Excellent

 

 

 

Comment

Natural Rubber has many good characteristics. It has high resilience, good compression set, food roll building behavior, and molding properties; very good friction surface, but not a fine smooth surface when ground; high tear strength, low crack growth; usable for ketones and alcohol; and good low temperature properties.

Natural Rubber is not recommended for oil and solvent resistance and ozone attacks it.

SBR is a low cost non-oil resistant material. It has good water resistance and resilience up to 70 durometer; compression set becomes poorer with higher durometer; generally satisfactory for most moderate chemicals and wet or dry organic acids.

SBR is not recommended for ozone, strong acids, oils, greases, fats and most hydrocarbons.

 

 

 

 

Urethane

Butyl

Common Names

Urethane, Polyurethane

Butyl

 

 

 

ASTM D-2000 Classification

BG

AA, BA

Military (MIL STD 417)

SB

RS

Chemical Definition

Polyester/Polyether Urethane

Isobutylene Isoprene

 

 

 

General Characteristics

 

 

Durometer Range (Shore A)

35 - 100

40 - 90

Tensile Range (P.S.I.)

500 - 6000

500 - 3000

Elongation (Max %)

750

850

Compression Set

Poor

Fair to Good

Resilience - Rebound

Good

Fair

Abrasion Resistance

Excellent

Fair

Tear Resistance

Excellent

Good

Solvent Resistance

Poor

Poor

Oil Resistance

Good

Poor

Low Temperature Usage (F)

-10 to -30

-10 to -60

High Temperature Usage (F)

to 175

to 250

Aging Weather - Sunlight

Excellent

Excellent

Adhesion to Metals

Fair to Good

Good

 

 

 

Comment

The castable types have excellent abrasion resistance; good compression set at high hardness levels; low friction surface; tensile strengths up to 6000 PSI; good ozone resistance; good oil and solvent resistance; and poor heat and hot water resistance. The millable types of Polyurethane are in wide use today. Through the use of reinforcing pigments and other chemicals, desirable characteristics can be obtained to fit a variety of applications: wear resistance is excellent and greatly superior to most other polymers; the surface is of low friction nature; oil resistance is good and equivalent to the better nitriles but is not recommended for use in water or heat above 175F; plus good ozone resistance and low rebound characteristcs.

Urethane is not normally attacked by moderate chemicals and hydrocarbons. It is generally attacked by concentrated acids, ketones, chlorinated and nitro hydrocarbons.

Butyl rubber is impermeable to most common gasses and has good resistance to sunlight and ozone. Butyl is normally satisfactory when exposed to animal and vegetable oils and oxidizing chemicals.

Butyl is not recommended for use with petroleum solvent, coal tar and aromatic hydrocarbons.

 

 

 

 

Hydrin

Hypalon

Common Names

Hydrin

Hypalon

 

 

 

ASTM D-2000 Classification

CH, DK, DJ

CE

Military (MIL STD 417)

SB

SC

Chemical Definition

Epichlorohydrin

Chlorosulfonated/polyethylene

 

 

 

General Characteristics

 

 

Durometer Range (Shore A)

40 - 90

45 - 100

Tensile Range (P.S.I.)

500 - 2500

1000 - 3000

Elongation (Max %)

350

500

Compression Set

Good

Fair

Resilience - Rebound

Good

Fair

Abrasion Resistance

Good

Excellent

Tear Resistance

Good

Good

Solvent Resistance

Good

Fair to Good

Oil Resistance

Excellent

Fair to Good

Low Temperature Usage (F)

-15 to -50

-30 to -60

High Temperature Usage (F)

to 225

to 225

Aging Weather - Sunlight

Good

Excellent

Adhesion to Metals

Good

Excellent

 

 

 

Comment

Epichlorohydrin is an outstanding polymer, exhibiting most of the better qualities of nitrile and neoprene, but having additional plus features: oil and solvent resistance is very good. Hydrin has especially low swell in gasoline; low temperature performance is better than either nitrile or neoprene, and offers less torsional stiffness at sub zero temperatures; high temperature endurance is good up to 250F; resilience is good and compression set is fairly good in many compounds; abrasion is equivalent to the nitriles; and ozone weathering and water resistance are very good.

Epichlorohydrin is generally attacked by ketones, esters, aldehydes, chlorinated and nitro hydrocarbons.

Hypalon has very good resistance to oxidation and ozone, as well as good flame resistance; it is similar to neoprene except with improved acid resistance; abrasion resistance is excellent, about the equivalent of nitrile, low friction surface; and oil and solvent resistance about intermediate between neoprene and nitrile.

Hypalon is not recommended for exposure to concentrated oxidizing acids, esters, ketones, chlorinated, aromatic and nitro hydrocarbons. Hypalon is recommended for immersion in water.

 

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  Polymers
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