smoothing and compressing a material
(notably paper) during production by passing
a continuous sheet through a number of pairs
of heated rolls.
The rolls in combination are called
calenders; they are made of hardened steel
or steel covered with fiber. In paper
production, they typically exert a pressure
of 500 lbs per linear in. (89 kg per cm).
Coated papers are calendered to obtain a
smooth, glossy finish. Calendering is also
widely used in the manufacture of textiles,
coated fabrics, and plastic sheeting.
Calendering is a
final process in which heat and pressure are
applied to a fabric by passing it between
heated rollers, imparting a flat, glossy,
smooth surface. Lustre increases when the
degree of heat and pressure is increased.
Calendering is applied to fabrics in which a
smooth, flat surface is desirable, such as
most cottons, many linens and silks, and
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