of Rubber Products
tyre is an annular toroidal-shaped inflatable envelope, made of rubber, which is
reinforced with cord,
enclosing coiled wire bead rings. It is fitted a metallic rim which is secured
to the vehicle (plate 9, Exhibit 17.1).
A pneumatic tyre performs the
following principal functions:
It supports the weight of the vehicle.
It transmit the forces on the vehicle to the ground,
e.g. it help to covert the engine torque to movement of the vehicle.
It gives a more comfortable ride to the passenger or
cargo in the vehicle by.
Acting as an additional spring in the suspension
Elastic deformation over undulations on the road.
It permits cornering on the road at relatively high
speeds by its capacity to generate higher cornering forces than would have been
possible with a solid tyre.
Tyres may be classified in
the following ways:
Tyre and Rim Notations See
Fig. 17.1 for basic definitions. The tyre size which is prominently displayed
on the sidewall indicates the approximate dimensions of the tyre. Many systems
of tyre sizing are in vogue and the two most commonly used systems are explained
Size “9.00-20” indicates that the tyre has a section
width of approximately 9” and is fitted on a rim of 20” nominal bead diameter.
For radial ply tyres, size 145/70R12 denotes a tyre
with section width 145 mm, radial play and nominal rim diameter code 12, and an
aspect ratio of 70.
The ply rating of a tyre is
also displayed on the sidewall, and indicates its load carrying capacity. It
should be noted that it does not necessarily represent the number of casing
plies. The actual load carrying capacity may be obtained by reference to
published standards. In India, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has
published this data. The ratio of tyre section height to width is called
Tyres may be classified by the type of casing construction used and the
principal physical difference between the casing constructions lies in the
angles of the casing and breaker cords. The two basic casing constructions are
Cross ply The casing angle and the breaker angles
are generally equal and in the region of 40°, with cords in alternate plies
rubbing in opposite directions.
Radial ply All the cords in the casing run in a
radial direction and breaker cords are at a very low angle, i.e. almost
All aspects remaining the
same, the mileage potential of radials is the best (Fig. 17.2)
Tyre used on hard dry roads do not need patterned treads. However, on wet
roads, the water acts as a lubricant between the tread rubber and the road,
thus, drastically reducing the friction and hence grip of the tyre on the road.
The pattern on treads helps to remove much of the water between the tyre and the
road, thus improving the grip.
Tread patterns are of two
basic types which are listed below. Various combinations of these types of
patterns are in use which aim at providing specific properties for specific
service uses and also to improve visual impact.
Figure 17.3 shows in simplest
terms the fundamentals of tread pattern design. The two basic patterns have the
Transverse cross-ribbed or lugged patterns
Goods fore-and- aft grip; tendencies to irregular wear and reduced grip; and
noise on running are some of its properties.
From these two basic
patterns, others can be derived by addition and distortion. The simplest of
these is produced by simple addition or combination of the basic two.
Square studs They have the features of-good grip in
both directions; tendency to irregular wear; noise on running; and instability
on cornering due to flexibility of units.
Ribs with side studs This is a simple commercial
pattern. It is used for industrial tyres and for front wheel grader tyres. Its
properties are: good resistance to wear; good steering due to longitudinal ribs;
and side studs ensure that rotation and steering are maintained on soft
Diamonds This was a well-known pattern for earth
mover and other tyres. Properties were very similar to those of square studs,
but slightly improved good grip in all directions; somewhat reduced tendency to
irregular wear, and reduced noise.
Improved ribs and side studs. The basic properties
are similar to those quoted under ribs with side studs for general on-and-off
the road use.
Symmetrical transverse. In this case, the simple
tranvansverse bar becomes a chevron, balanced about the centre line of the
pattern. This type of pattern is widely used. The properties are: maximum grip
and drive on rough and loose surfaces; tending to irregular wear if run on
smoother roads; and no sideways reaction on drive or braking.
Asymmetrical transverse There have been a whole
range of such designs, based on helical gear wheel designs. The properties can
be altered by doing subtle changes to groove shape, tread radius, and shoulder
The basic types of highway
truck tyre designs are rib, lug, and semi-lug.
Rib Type Treads Tyres with
rib type tread are “all position” tyres. They can be used on all wheel
positions at legal highway speeds. These tyres are always recommended for
steering wheel use on longhaul, high-speed service. The circumferential groove
design provides maximum steering capability and good skid resistance.
Lug Type Treads Lug tyres are
designed for drive wheel service. The design provides greater traction in high
Semi-lug Treads Semi-lug type
tyres are designed for drive wheel service and are suitable for many off-the
–road operations. These tread designs provide maximum resistance to wear and
greater traction in high torque service. These designs are also suitable for
steering wheel application.
Some examples of patterns for
specific applications are listed below.
Tractors used on wet fields have drive axle tyres
which have deep transverse bars which bite into the soil and thus provide the
required traction. The bars are placed at angle, so that the mud can slip off
the tyre and the pattern is always reasonably clean when it makes contact with
the wet surface.
Tyres used in deserts where the sandy surface is
very soft and extremely deep have very shallow circumferential patterns. Deep
transverse patterns would dig into the sand and get embedded in it. An
absolutely bald pattern would have been the best in these circumstances so that
the load on the sand is distributed over a larger area thus reducing the chances
of the tyre getting embedded in the sand. However, as these tyres are sometimes
used on hard roads which may be wet, shallow circumferential patterns are
Air at high pressure is required to be enclosed between the tyre and the rim.
In general, this is achieved by using an air-tight elastic tube made of rubber
compound which is placed inside the tyre and rim assembly. These tyres are
referred to as tubed tyres or conventional tyres.
In some cases, it is possible
to achieve air seal between the tyre and the rim without the use of tubes. This
is done by having a thick layer of rubber inside the tyre which acts as an air
envelop. These tyre are known as tubeless tyres. They are used on special rims
The three main parts of a tyre
are-casing, tread, and bead.
The casing, which is made of layers of textile cord fabric surrounded by rubber
compounds, provides the strength of the tyre. The following components make up
a typical casing.
These are layers of textile cord fabric, coated with rubber compound which are
cut to the required dimensions and bias angle. They are locked around the bead
wire coils. The textile may be cotton, rayon, or nylon. Steel, glass fibre,
and polyester are also used. (Plate 10, Exhibit 17.2).
Inner liner This is a layer of rubber compound
fitted inside the tyre to protect the plies. In the case of tubeless tyres, a
thick inner liner is used (see item d), and often a special formulation for
lower air permeability is chosen.
Insulations These are layers of rubber compound
fitted between or over the plies to provide extra reinforcement or cushion to
the casing in critical regions.
Breakers These are relatively narrow bands of cord
fabric coated with rubber and are fitted where necessary on top of the plies.
They absorb high instantaneous shock load and distribute them evenly over the
casing. They may also be used to provide additional stiffness to the tread.
Chafers These are layers of textile fabric coated
with rubber which are fitted over the casing in the bead region. They protect
casing from damage due to chafing with the rim or during mounting or dismounting
from the rim.
is a relatively thick layer of rubber which is fitted over the casing/breaker
assembly and protects the casing from external physical and environmental damage
(Plate II, Exhibit 17.3). The top portion of the tread which comes in contact
with the road is patterned as required for the service conditions. The sidewall
region may also have patterns, generally for visual impact. The size, type, ply
rating and manufacturer’s name are generally displayed on the sidewall. In the
case of bicycle tyres, a number of combinations are used, for example, two tone
colours such as white and brown, ribbon or stripes on one or both sides, open
sidewall tyre which has practically no rubber on its sidewell, or fluorescent
line tyre where a fluorescent paint or strip is used.
Beads consist of one or more coils or rubberized wires fitted generally with
wrappers, fillers, and apices. The bead being relatively inextensible locks the
tyre to the rim. A typical bead is made up of the following components:
Bead Coil These may be of one wire or more and is
coated with rubber if more than one wire is used. The wires are generally made
from copper-coated steel.
Wrapper This layer of textile fabric, coated with
compound, which is wrapped around the bead coils, keeps the layers of wires in
position and provides good adhesion between the bead coil and the surrounding
casing or fillers.
Apex An apex is fitted over the wrapper and is
generally triangular in shape and made of rubber compound. They help in
improving the bead shape and bulk and avoid the formation of air pockets at the
Filler This is made of textile fabric coated with
rubber and fitted over the wrapped bead and apex assembly (Fig. 17.5)
Preparation of the
components: Rubberized fabrics from the calender are cut to strips at an angle
in a “bias-cutter”. These strips are jointed together end-wise so that a
continuous strip (cut ply) is formed having the cords at an angle to its
length. The width of the strip is arranged to suit the size of the type to be
made. Two such strips are then plied together so that the cords form a
or trellis pattern. Insulation rubber is applied on the ply as specified.
Beads are produced by passing
a group of wires through a T-head extruder so that they become embedded in a
rubber tape. Layers of this type are wound onto a drum until the required
thickness is built up. The whole is wrapped helically in a strip of
rubber-covered fabric. After applying apex compound strip, a second rubberized
strip, called the “filler” is folded around the bead.
The sidewalls and tread are
frequently made of different compounds, which are extruded either separately, or
as a combination secured by arranging two extruders in tandem.
All the components are
assembled at the tyre building machine.
Bicycle tyres are built in two
ways: (I) In the crown overlap method, rubberized tyre cord fabric is cut to 2.5
times the width of the tyre and wound up around a building drum. After placing
the bead wire coils at 1/4th width from either edge, the ends are
folded to have a 1-cm overlap at the centre. Tread rubber is then applied.
(ii) In the band method, tyre
cord fabric is slit in the warp direction and wound up over two bead wires on a
drum building machine at a bias. Tread rubber is then applied.
An automotive tyre building
machine (Plate 12, Exhibit 17.4) consists of a rotatable drum with edges shaped
to receive the bead assemblies. Behind the drum is a set of racks for holding
the strips of fabric and rubber, and lower down are power driven rollers and
wheels for rolling the components into position. To right and left and
supporting rings for beads, so mounted that they place the beads in exactly the
correct position on the drum.
The operator first applies to
the drum the doubled plies of fabric, their edges extending beyond those of the
drum (Plate 13, Exihibit 17.5). Then the beads are set in place. The plies
are turned up around the beads. When the plies and breakers have been fitted
and rolled on, the tread and sidewalls are applied, consolidated, the drum
collapsed, and the ‘green” type removed.
Tyres with bias angle up to 65°
are built of flat-topped drums in a single stage process. Above this angle
(e.g. radial tyres) a two-stage process is necessary.
Radial tyres must be built with
a shape approximating that of the final moulded shape, e.g. a toroidal, rather
than cylindrical shape (plate 13, Exihibit 17.6). The casing is made on a flat
drum machine of the type used for building bias ply tyres. It is transferred to
a second machine which has the ability to expand. Usually, the drum is composed
of metal sections which are covered with a polymer sleeve. After the casing has
been built on the drum, the centre is expanded and the belt plies and tread
built on the expanded casing.
Tyres are normally cured by
press cures at high temperatures and pressures. The compound flow into the
mould shape and the cord angle in the ply changes by “pantographing effect” as
the tyre changes to a toroidal shape. In radial tyres with steel belts, where
shaping occurs before the tyre is placed in the mould, it is necessary to use
segmental moulds. With this type, the mould segments approach the crown of the
tyre in radial direction when the press closes.
After curing, the tyre can be
mounted on a rim and permitted to cool while inflated to reduce internal
stresses. This step is called post-cure inflation. Finishing the tyre involves
awlholing, trimming, buffing, balancing, and inspections by quality control
procedures. White sidewall is fitted with a black overlay which is buffed
(Plate 14, Exhibit 17.7). Awlholing removes air pockets that may remain from
tyre building. After buffing and trimming, the tyre is viewed of imperfections,
then balanced. Balancing ensures dynamic equilibrium by testing the uniformity
of mass distribution of a tyre relative to its spin and steer axes.
Inner tubes are made of rubber
compound and are provided with a one way valve to enable inflation of the tube.
Tubes were originally made from
natural rubber compounds. However, several other synthetic rubbers are now in
use. The most important of these is butyl which imparts a much higher degree of
impermeability to air and resistance to heat degradation than NR or other
general purpose synthetic rubbers.
Various types of valves are
available to suit specific uses. The function of these valves is to enable
inflation of the tube. Their one way nature also prevents deflation. The type
of valve to be used design of the axle and wheel assembly.
Additional components may be
used in the tube in special cases as dictated by performance requirements. And,
the most important of these are:
strips These are thin strips of rubber fitted over the tube joint to improve
reinforcement strips These are strips of textile fabric coated with rubber
compound which are fitted to the base region of the tube as protection against
heat build up in the rim and/or damage by the rim.
The manufacture of tubes may be
done in many ways depending on the equipment available and the size of the
tube. The following are the most important steps involved:
Tube extrusion Tubes are extruded as annular
cylinders through dies (fitted with centres) to the required dimensions. If
the tube is extremely big in section, it may not be possible to extrude them in
one piece and may be prepared from two or more pieces joined by hand.
fitment. A small hole is made at the appropriate location on the tube and the
valve is fitted over the hole. Valves having rubber bases are fitted to the
tube body by means of rubber-based solutions.
Joining Raw tubes in their cylindrical forms are trimmed to the correct length
and joined on a machine. If joint strips are required, they are fitted at this
stage over the joint.
Forming Raw joined tubes are then inflated slightly to a symmetric toroidal
shape and allowed to mature for the required duration of time.
Moulding Formed raw tubes are vulcanized in moulds at high temperatures.
Finishing / inspection During this stage, tubes are fitted with all the valve
accessories, checked for defects and leaks. They are then packed in containers
or bags ready for shipment.
Performance Requirements of tyre: Various tyre performance requirements
published by standards organizations include test procedures for tyre strength,
endurance, high speed performance, and tubeless tyre resistance to bead
the tyre strength test, a 19,mm diameter steel plunger with a hemispherical end
is pressed into the tread of the tyre. Different plunger forces are specified
for different tyre constructions. The tyre has passed the test if it does not
break or when the plunger bottoms against the well of the rim.
endurance and high-speed testing, a dynamometer or laboratory road wheel of
1.707-m diameter is used under controlled operating and environmental
conditions. These tests are rapid and less expensive than outdoor tests, and
are used for screening purposes, or as minimum customer/compliance tests under
varied loads, speeds, and inflation, pressure – conditions not practical by
other testing means. A tyre will pass if it does not show any evidence of
tread, ply, cord or bead separation, tread chunking, or cord break-up.
the bead unseating test for tubeless tyres, a blunt block is pushed against the
sidewall of a properly inflated tyre and the force required to unseat the tyre
Rolling resistance coefficient, which is the ratio of rolling resistance force
to the load carried by the tyre, may be determined for the different categories
safe performance of a tyre is influenced by tyre design, tread pattern, rubber
composition, and inflation pressure. Other safety requirements require
acceptable performance in the following tests: drive and breaking traction, low
pattern noise, side forces, high speed capability, directional control, low heat
generation, damage resistance, low hydroplaning potential, and high-skid
resistance on wet and dry road surfaces. Users must guard against the
indiscriminate exchange of tyres and tyre sizes.
Retreading: Considering that only about one-fifth of a tyre is worn out in
service, it makes economic sense to retread the tyres for multiple use.
Although both cross ply and radial tyres can be retreaded, 4 to 8 ply bias tyres
can be the most easily retreaded. However, the structural performance may fall
short of the new tyres and service conditions may have to be more closely
controlled. Two main methods, currently in use, are (a) conventional “hot”
capping and (b) precured-tread rubber process.
hot capping process uses “Camelback”, a thick section of unvulcanized tread
rubber, backed with cushion gum, which is applied to the (buffed) tyre carcass
during retreading. Generally, the techniques used for retreading and remoulding
compounds follows the practice of compounding used for new types, except that
the practical and economic aspects are given greater emphasis in order to get a
combination of good physical properties and simplified inventories. Casings are
repaired prior to remoulding, with unvulcanized cross ply patches. Different
types of retreading can be done, covering portions of the tyre-top cap (for
tread wearing area retreads only), re-cap (a shoulder to shoulder retread,
including the buttress), and remoulds (complete bead to bead retread).
the precured tread rubber (cold process) retreading, better mileage is obtained
than with the hot capping process. The tyre is inspected for cuts, ply
separations, etc. and after inspection, it is repaired with repair compound or
patches, and then buffed under inflated conditions to facilitate bonding.
Thereafter, the tyre is again inflated on an expandable hub and coated with
vulcanizing cement on its buffed surface. A layer of bonding/cushion gum is
applied around the surface of the tyre. The trapped air between the layers is
removed and the vulcanized tread strip is applied, its ends spliced and
stitched. After this operation, the expandable hubs are collapsed and the tyre
is deflated and removed for the vulcanization. The tyre is fitted on suitable
rims and inflated with the use of a tube. The inflated tyre is then slipped
into an envelope and vulcanized in a press at lower temperatures than is
normally used for tyre vulcanization. The low temperature curing condition must
be good for each retread, i.e. number of retreads. However, the casing
condition must be good for each retread, i.e. substantially free from major cuts
and punctures. Tyres can be retreaded with different patterns and various sizes
can be moulded simultaneously, unlike in conventional remoulding.
conveyor belt is used to carry materials from its loading point to discharge
end. A conveyor system, in its simplest form, consists of built-up structure
having a driving pulley, a trail pulley, and a number of three pulley idler,
placed at a regular intervals between the driving and trail pulleys. A conveyor
belt moves round the pulleys, driven by the driving pulley and the material
discharged on it is taken away and transferred to the other end. A conveyor
system may be a few km in length. It is used in steel, cement, thermal power,
mines, port, fertilizer, and other major industries.
conveyor belts is normally of 300-1600 mm in width and of length up to 400m. It
is actually used as a mechanical device for conveying materials in horizontal,
inclined, and declined line.
Design: The structural design of the conveyor belt is based on the conditions of
the individual drive which carries varied amount of materials of different
grades. Therefore, each conveyor belt is designed for specific service
conditions and components are designed to ensure maximum belt life.
order to decide the belt grade and cover thicknesses, one has to consider the
conveyor systems in totality, the temperature of the material to be carried,
abrasive nature, size, chemical effect of the materials on belt, surrounding
a conveyor installation is planned, the driving power (drive pulley) and the
tensile strength of the conveyor belt can be calculated on the basis of industry
and manufacturers’ standards. In general, belts have a factor of safety of 8to
10. To obtain sufficient friction between the belt and drive pulley, the belt is
given a pretension of about 2% of its nominal load. A load of 10% of the
nominal strength corresponds to the average operating conditions. Peak loads
may reach 25-30% of the nominal strength.
general, a conveyor belt has to meet the following basic requirement: high
strength, low growth, high impact resistance good throughability, low bending
resistance, effective mechanical splicing, resistance to outdoor and special
conditions like fire, etc.
operation, the conveyor belt has to transfer the tension through the
longitudinal member of the carcass and to carry the load via the cover by both
longitudinal and transverse members of the carcass. Besides, the top and bottom
cover rubber have to protect the carcass and to bear impact and pulley
rotational forces, respectively.
conveyor belt is exposed to changes of tension and elongation at the start-up,
when in use, and at rest. The elastic properties determine the design of a
conveyor belt, especially its correct tension rating. A special problem is
growth of carcass under service conditions. The growth is determined by the type
reinforcement, its construction, and treatment. A special test method has been
established to draw the tension-elongation curve (belt characteristic curve) of
any conveyor belt.
impact resistance is required to absorb the impact forces on the belt in the
loading area. This impact resistance is proportional to the breaking energy of
the belt. Apart from the reinforcement, the construction of the top cover also
plays an important role.
troughability of the conveyor belt in transverse direction is essential for
running on high idler angles (therefore, larger load capacities). Mechanical
fasteners are used for fabric reinforced light belts and where the length of the
fabric conveyor belt has to be changed frequently, for example, in a coal mine.
The efficiency of joints made with mechanical fasteners relative to the nominal
belt strength is up to 90% There are seven major systems of belt jointing to
form an endless belt.
There are numerous designs of fabric belting, for example:
One-ply belts-solid woven or single ply.
Two-ply belts-duo-ply or two plies
main ranges for the use of conveyor belts with different reinforcement materials
is shown in Fig. 17.7. The most widely used reinforcement is woven belting duck
(with ends and picks at right angles to each other). The warp crimp resulting
from the fabric construction absorbs the compression of the inner fabric plies
when the belt goes around pulleys.
breaking strength of conveyor belts in expressed in kN/m, (length-wise
strength). According to the International standards Organization
classification, the breaking strength classes may be expressed in the schedule
100, 125, 160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, and 1000 kN/m. The number of
plies by which a belt is reinforced is indicated by the figure following the
determination of its breaking strength. Usually, the belts have two to six
plies. The corss-wise belt strength is calculated as 25/32/40/50/65/80/100/120
kN/m multiplied by the number of plies. Similar classification is used for
belting ducks also, but the actual strengths are specified at 20-25% higher due
to the conversion efficiency losses. The ratio between length-wise and
cross-wise strength is usually 4:1 or 3:1, and occasionally, 2:1 where an
extremely good fasteners resistance is desired. A desired type of belt of can
be made up from different fabrics and a wide range of strength classes can be
built up with only a few varieties.
PARTS OF CONVEYOR BELT
conveyor belt consists of (Plate 15, Exhibit 17.8):
Inter-ply rubber compound
Breaker if required
Strength member Strength members are normally woven fabric made from cotton,
cotton/nylon, rayon/nylon, nylon/nylon, on polyester/nylon. Number of plies
varies from two to six. Cotton fabrics only were used earlier and typical
constructions are given in Table 17.1.
Cotton belting ducks
type Average breaking load
way Weft Way
width) (N/cm width)
belts tend to be bulky, and, at the same time, have strength limitation of
500kN/m only. But with increasing demand of carrying more material, higher
strength of belt was urgently needed. Hence, cotton/nylon fabric came into use.
Fabrics used are given in Table 17.2.
Cotton/nylon belting ducks
finished belting (kN/m)
Belt strength achieved up to
All nylon ducks undergo dipping
and heat setting to improve their adhesion to rubber and to reduce elongation.
The latter is essential as high elongation will cause excessive belt growth
which needs adjustment for the take up system.
Different fabrics used are
given in Table 17.3
Nylon belting ducks
from finished belting (min.)
Belt strength achieved is
maximum 1800 kN/m only. In longhaulage conveyor, even nylon fabrics are not
suitable due to high elongation (i.e. minimum achievable by heat setting).
Therefore, polyester/nylon fabrics are used as shown in Table 17.4.
Polyester/nylon belting ducks
finished belting (min.)
Maximum belt strength achieved
is 1800 kN/m. At present, this strength is not enough to cope with the
increasing demand of higher belt strength with maximum elongation. Hence, steel
cord becomes the answer. It has as low as 0.2% elongation at working load
compared to 4% for nylon and 3% for polyester fabrics. Using steel cord as
tension member, belt strengths that can be obtained are ST500 to ST7000. Steel
has many advantages but its high relative density makes the belt very heavy.
Inter ply rubber Its main
function is to give adequate bondage between plies so that the plies are not
separate from each other during the service period. It also gives cushioning
effect between plies and protects them to some extent from shock load due to the
fall of the materials. Inter ply rubber thickness depends upon type of ply and
severity of service conditions.
Face cover: It protects the
carcass, i.e. the assembled plies, from impact damage abrasion loss, cutting,
gouging, etc. of the carcase materials. Cover rubber which faces the carrying
materials is termed as face cover or top cover. NR, SBR, NBR. etc. are used for
making the cover rubber.
Breaker: If additional
protection of the carcass from impact is required, a loosely woven fabric is
used in between the face cover and the carcass. This diversifies the impact
force in all directions leaving only a little at the place of impact.
Back cover: It protects the
carcass from abrasion of the pulley and disperses the shock to some extent.
17.3.2 Manufacturing Process
Fabric preparation: The fabric
plies of required width are dried by passing through a number of bowls heated by
steam. The dried fabrics are then rubberized by frictioning in a three-bowl
calender. These are then topped in three-bowl calender with topping compound.
In case of
nylon/nylon and polyester/nylon fabrics, the fabrics are stabilized by heat
setting and dipped in RFL dip to get adequate bonding in finished product. Due
to dipping, the fabric interstices are almost filled up and hence no frictioning
is required. These fabrics are, therefore, topped only either in three-bowl
calender or preferably in a four-bowl calender. In a three-bowl calender, two
pass is required for both side topping. Table 17.5 gives typical formulations
for conveyor belt frictioning and topping compounds.
Typical frictioning and
topping compound formulations
Frictioning compound Topping
cotton/cotton for cotton and
and cotton/nylon phr cotton/nylon x 2 phr.
Zinc oxide 4.00
Preparation of cover rubber: The compound is calendered into specified gauge on
a three-bowl calender. The width of the calendered rubber is kept approximately
75mm more than nominal belt width.
Slitting of plies: The rubber fabric is cut to width on a slitting machine,
appropriate to the size and construction of the belt to be made.
belt making: The cut plies are transferred to the belt- making table
(hand-building table or automatic belt – making machine), where the required
number of plies are assembled centrally and passed through pressure rollers for
consolidation. The back cover rubber is then assembled over the build-up
carcass and passed through pressure rollers, is then assembled over the build-up
carcass and passed through edges, rolled down, and trimmed flush. The face
cover is then assembled and turned at edges similarly. The raw belt, thus made,
is passed through a chalk box and pricker rollers and batched on itself.
Vulcanization: Vulcanization is carried out on hydraulically operated presses. A
frame is prepared with the help of moulding irons, metals frames, and packing
bars on the lower platen and raw belt is fitted to that frame. The frame
controls the thickness and width o8f the belt. With the help of movable clamps,
raw belts are stretched to requirement prior to closing the press for
vulcanization. The stretched belt is then compressed between steam heated
platens and vulcanized. Temperature, time, and hydraulic pressure being
automatically controlled and recorded. After vulcanization, the press is opened,
the vulcanized portion is withdrawn and raw portion which then enters inside is
vulcanized similarly and this cycle of operations continues until the whole
length of belt is cured.
Dimensions of moulding presses are different. A common press is 9.75 m long x
1875 mm wide having a stretching device at both ends. It has cool end at the
incoming end of the belt.
belt is stretched as per requirement. The curing time varies between 16' to 30'
and temperature between 140°C and 150°C, depending upon the thickness of the
belt and cure characteristics of the compounds. One should remember that a good
sequence of curing characteristic between all the compounds should be made.
Moulding pressure varies between 1.2 Mpa and 2.8 Mpa depending upon the type of
belt. Spew is trimmed off from belt edges and the belt is packed after
inspection and repair.
Inspection and repair: Defects market during Moulding are then repaired and the
belt is inspected. Sample from each belt is taken and tested for different
parameters laid down in specification for respective type of beltings.
Finished belt testing
(1) Measurement-Belt width thickness, and face and back cover
Full belt strength and elongation in warp and weft way.
Tensile strength and elongation of cover rubbers, initial and after
Specified in the specification.
(4) Peel adhesions of face cover ply and ply/ply and back cover/ply.
(5) Oil swell test (for oil resistant belt).
(6) Abrasion test.
and electrical resistant test (for PVC belt).
test (for PVC belt.)
grade: Depending upon the end-use, different grades of beltings are given in
Tables 17.6 and 17.7.
Conveyor belt grades
IS: 1891 (Part I) 1978
IS: 1891 (Part II) 1978
IS: 1891 (Part III) 1978
1891 (Part IV) 1978
Flame resistant (surface)
Flame resistant (coal
mines) IS: 3181 – 1978
Specification for belting grade
(I) IS:1891 IS: 1891 (II)
(MN/m) min. 24.0
250 400 350
A) 65° ±
5° 65° ± 5° -
150 200 -
for 70°C for 100°C for
72 hours 72 hours 72 hours
tensile strength +10
-20 -20 -45
change elongation at
+10 +10 +10
-25 -25 -45
For cotton For snthetic
(a) Cover up to
1 mm No
test No test No test
(b) Cover up to
2.20 3.15 1.95
(c) Cover over
2.60 4.50 -
are used in flat running belts and in underground mining belts. They are of the
following types: (a) monoply or solid woven; (b) duo-ply.
belts have doubled cotton/nylon or doubled viscose/nylon as a-reinforcing
fabric. The reinforcing component should meet the flame test requirements,
create sufficient mechanical fastening, and increase the belt modulus.
high strength belts, solid-woven fabrics are used. These lead to improved
roughing characteristics, less ply separations, and easier splicing. In a
solid-woven fabric, two or more weft layers are interlaced by warp threads.
Solid-woven belting always means using PVC as a matrix material. Only a low
viscosity PVC paste can penetrate into the thick solid woven fabrics. To get
sufficient adhesion, the synthetic filament yarns in warp and weft often are
twisted together with cotton.
longitudinal steel cord reinforcement gives a belt with a high tensile strength,
Thus, very long centres and high lifts or falls can be used. The high strength
toweight ratio enables the steel cord belting to carry much more load for a
given drive at a given rate of power.
comparison of the different belting types is given in Table 17.8.
Comparison of different of conveyor
Sl. No. Characteristic
200 200 500
to to to
2000 2000 7000
Belt weight 7.5
6.5 8.0 12.5
(kN/m) to to
At working load
Maximum haul length
On single endless
belt (m) 700 4000
5. Typical belt speed (m/s)
strength member-steel cord-is a twisted composite of several strands of
high-carbon zinc-coated steel wires. The construction has to be varied for
different strength ratings. In order to ensure long-term corrosion protection
during end-use, it is important that rubber penetrates fully into the
interstices of the cords, thereby preventing all chances of capillary wicking.
A specially formulated “bonder” compound, in addition to its high adhesion
characteristic, which can also flow into the interstices of the cord during the
vulcanizing process is used. Cover rubbers of a variety of grades to suit
service requirements are applied. During manufacturing, special care is taken to
ensure cord-planarity and tension controls to avoid crooked running. Special
splicing techniques are also used for steel cord belting.
advantage of steel cord belting.
tension rating, larger span, and higher throughput compared to textile belting;
elongation and little take-up space;
dynamic performance and longer life; and
are reinforced polymeric pipes, mainly used for transferring materials (liquids,
gases and solids up to a limited particle size) under pressure. Unlike metal
pipes, polymeric hoses are flexible, they absorb vibration, handle corrosive
fluids, dampen sound, store easily, and are available in a large range of
can be broadly divided into end-use, specific working pressure, and diameter
categories. End-uses may be domestic (e.g. garden hose), automotive, hydraulic
and pneumatic, oil and solvent, mining, or general industrial applications.
may be divided into low pressure (below 20 bar) medium pressure (20-70 bar) or
high pressure (above 70 bar), based on specific working pressure. A particular
hose should be designed taking into account the specific material to be carried
(solvent, steam, etc.) application. Specific working pressure and temperature,
carrying rate, and life expectancy.
rubber hose consists of three main components:
lining or rubber tubing;
reinforcement (which may be braided, spiralled, circular woven, knitted, or
wrapped with a range of reinforcing textiles (cotton, rayon, nylon, polyester,
polypropylene, steel wire, glass fibre, or aramid); and
cover for outer protection (Fig. 17.9).
carries the material being handled, transmits the pressure to the reinforcement,
and is made of suitable compounded rubbers which are impervious to and
unaffected by the material being handled. For braided hoses, the lining
compound should have good extrudability and flow readily around the braid. The
compound should have sufficient stiffness to withstand the tension during
braiding and vulcanize to a smooth and seamless finish so that it offers minimum
resistance to the flow of material in contact with it.
Reinforcement: The reinforcement of hoses may be done in five different ways
braiding, spiralling, weaving, knitting, and wrapping. Braiding is a simple
process which gives a flexible hose and is more resistant to misuse (better
impulse and flex performance) than spiralling. Spiralling can be done at higher
speeds (10 times) than braiding, giving high bursting pressures and good impulse
Circular woven hoses are foldable and are useful in fire hoses. Vertical
knitting can be done at four4 times the production rate of horizontal braiding
machines and the hoses can have good flexibility and range of diameters, e.g.
automotive coolant hoses.
Wrapping is suitable for large diameter hoses, e.g. marine hose.
last three processes are not suited for high burst pressure applications. When
more than one layer of reinforcement is used, an additional insulation rubber is
generally applied between the layers.
To prevent damage to the reinforcement member in service, a suitable rubber
compound is used as cover. The cover finish may be smooth or fluted. The burst
pressure is generally determined to be four times the operating pressure. Burst
pressure of a hose is calculated by the formulae below:
Braided or spiralled hose:
2 N R Sinθ
P = DL
P = burst pressure,
= no. of yarns or cords, R = breaking strength of single yarn/cord, D =
diameter, L = pitch length, and θ = braid angle.
2 (2S R Sin θ) N
P = DL
= burst pressure, V = hoop force, D = mean ply diameter, L = length of fabric
unit, S = fabric strength, N = no. of plies, F = efficiency factor, and θ =
angle of application of the reinforcing material around a hose lining is known
as braid angle. Braiding is normally done at 54° 44’ which is mathematically
derived as the natural angle. At this angle, the length and diameter change
under pressure will be the minimum.
procedures and requirements for hoses are specified in various standards such as
BIS, BS, ISO, DIN, and SAE.
Although there are many different processes and machinery used for making hoses
these can be divided into the following broad categories by diameter, pressure,
and production methods (plate 16, Exhibit 17.9). a classification of different
hose types is presented in Fig. 17.10.
Hand-made hoses: These cover a range of sizes from fractional bore vacuum hoses
to 40” diameter sleeves. This process is most suited for large diameter hoses
for oil suction and discharge (up to 600-mm diameters), dreading, etc. These
hoses are generally hand-built on mandrels using wrapping and are cured in
vulcanizers. Calendered inner liners is applied on mandrels, then rubberize
woven fabric, and lastly, Calendered cover rubber, all to the requisite gauge
and width. Many layers of wrappers are applied and the mass cured in
vulcanizers. A common feature of many hand-built hose constructions is
inclusion of several types of wire, braided wire, or woven fabric to improve the
strength or collapse resistance. For example, for oil suction and discharge
hoses, a helix of heavy metal strip or a thick wire is built onto the carcass to
provide rigidity. Special end fittings r couplings may be built in to provide
Hand built on mandrels, reinforced with
Several types of wire, braided wire,
Woven fabric, wrapped and cured in
Not suitable for automated or continuous
Rotary oil drilling
Fuel & emission
Hose bore (mm)→
process is not suited for continuous vulcanization methods, but development
efforts are going on to make large bore hoses with semi-automatic or automatic
Circular woven hoses: Fire hoses are mostly produced by this method. Yarns are
applied with a circular knitting machine. The pattern may be plain knit, lock
stitch, or warp knit, depending on the design of the knitter. The process is
usually limited to low burst pressure use such as garden hose and radiator hose.
Reinforcement for fire hoses consists of long lengths of fabrics woven on
circular looms. The warp is run in the longitudinal direction and weft threads
are interlaced to produce a seamless circular weave. The lining is either
extruded or hand-built from Calendered material, either unvulcanized or partly
vulcanized; this is inserted into the woven jacket.
ends are clamped and steam is admitted through the lining. This blows out and
presses the lining against and into the jacket during vulcanization. The woven
fabric itself acts as a cover and is usually treated to prevent mildew
formation. The main advantage of this hose is that it can be coiled flat and,
therefore, a long length can be accumulated in a small coil-size range is 37-62
mm is diameter.
ply hoses: In this process, low pressure hoses up to 40 m continuous length can
be made on simple, inexpensive equipment with accurate bore diameter.
involves wrapping several plies of rubber impregnated square woven fabric cut at
45° around an extruded tube on a mandrel in three roll building machine.
mandrels are usually made of steel for smaller diameter hoses and of light alloy
nominal bore diameter of the hose, and its maximum length can be 40m. The cut
fabric is applied lengthwise in strip form through rollers. Extruded cover is
also applied lengthways and consolidated. A wrapping cloth (usually of nylon) is
applied over the built hose and the assembly is vulcanized. After
vulcanization, the cloth is removed and the cured hose extracted from the
mandrel. These hoses have poor appearance and low flexibility. For suction
applications, hoses can be built with metal helix or springs under or above the
reinforcement: Braiding is the most popular method of reinforcing industrial
hoses. Before braiding, a mandrel which is equal in diameter to the inner.
Tube is inserted into the tube. This is done in order to avoid the tube from
collapsing under pressure of the braiding threads. For convenience, the maximum
lengths produced at a time are from 10-15 m.
is formed by the interweaving of yarns while they are helically spiralled over
the tube. Half of the reinforcing yarns spiral in a clockwise direction while
the rest move counter-clockwise giving usually a 2 up-2 down braid pattern.
range: 3-100 mm bore diameter.
braiding machine may have one or two decks. On double deck machines, two layers
of braiding can be applied simultaneously. There are two types of braiding
machine: vertical braider, also called planetary or “maypole” braiders and
non-planetary or horizontal braiders (Table 17.9)
reinforcement: Spiral reinforcement is applied in separate plies which are
always in opposite bias and remain separated by a Calendered rubber sheet,
dough, or cement. Since it requires two spiral layers to replace one braid, it
is important that there is “strike-through” from tube to cover to bond the two
layers, otherwise an extra layer of rubber must be added.
Vertical and horizontal braiders-a
braider Horizontal braider
Economical for long length moulded
hose Not economical for manufacture of long
length eliminates use of length moulded hose. Length is
Couplings and hence
the possibility of by length of mandrels and
them equipment such
as covering and
Wrapping machines and pans
Variation in bore and other components May use both
solid and flexible mandrels,
Cannot be closely
controlled unless a flexible Therefore, dimensions can be
Maximum strength of reinforcing yarn cannot Maximum strength of yarn
can be utilized
be obtained since raw hose is not made to as raw hose is
made to finished design
Calendered rubber sheet cannot be used for Calendered rubber sheet may be used
Rigid mandrel cannot be used Rigid
mandrel can be used
6. Takes less floor
space Takes more floor
A Comparison of braiders and spiral machines is
gives in Table 17.10.
Comparison of braiders and spiral machines
Deck speed (rpm) 33
Bobbin size (cm) 640
Carrier tension (kg)
0.9-2.7 0.2-0.7 0.05-0.45
speed of rotation determines the output. Bobbin size and number of bobbins also
influence the output. Carrier tensions are linked with the type of
reinforcement yarns used. Higher tensions are required to give maximum burst
pressure and the minimize dilation, so for some hoses, vertical braiders are
still a necessity.
Spiralling machine operate at a very high speed.
Size range: 3-100 mm bore diameter.
Flexible and rigid mandrels: In the flexible mandrel method, lining is extruded
over flexible mandrel made of nylon or polypropylene through a cross head
extruder and then reinforced by braiding or spiralling through a horizontal
braiding or spiralling machine. After reinforcement, the hose is rubber covered
through a cross-head extruder and then lead covered by lead extruder of lead
rigid mandrel method, lining is blown to a rigid mandrel made of steel (for low
diameters) of light alloy (for larger diameters), treated to prevent sticking.
Since the length is restricted to 40 m only, flexible mandrels are preferred for
critical uses such as high pressure hydraulic hoses, even though the production
cost is very high. Hydraulic hoses are generally reinforced with rayon,
polyester, polyvinyl alcohol, aramid, or high-tensile brass coated steel wire,
depending on working pressure requirement.
Automotive Engineers (SAE) has formulated standards for hydraulic hose-grades R1
to R11. For example, SAE 100 R1 is a rubber hose with one layer of wire braid
reinforcement, sizes ranging from 10 mm to 50 mm and for working pressure
ranging from 50 bar to 200 bar. It is used for medium pressure applications.
Hose SAE R11 has six layers of wire spiraled in opposite directions around the
tube. Hydraulic hoses may be manufactured for very high pressure u9p to 11000
psi or 750 kg/cm². NBR based lining compound and CR cover compounds are usually
applied to meet the service conditions.
lining is stiffened by freezing with liquid nitrogen before steel cord
reinforcement under high tension is applied over it.
Moulding: Raw hose is now inflated up to the desired outer diameter by light air
pressure in lining and then lead covered by passing it through a lead extruder
or lead press. Lead extruders, similar to that used in lead cable industry, are
(99.9% purity) is melted in an iron kettle and is poured into a water-jacketted
mould to cast billet. The billet is allowed to cool and is placed inside the
lead press (a ram type extruder cavity) by mechanical aid. The ram then moves
into position and presses the lead billet through the die assembly to extrude a
lead pipe. The hose is inflated with air and is fed into the press for lead
covering. The lead sheath may heave a smooth or a fluted inside surface which
is imprinted on rubber cover of the hose. The hose in the lead sheath is then
coiled on iron reels.
Ends of the lead covered hoses are cut, the hoses in lead sheath are filled with
water, and the reels are transferred to a horizontal curing pan. The hose is
given as open-steam cure, maintaining a constant water pressure inside the
lead-covered hose through out the cure.
Sheath Stripping: Cured hose is passed through a stripping machine where the
lead sheath is taken off the hose, cut into small pieces, and the pieces are fed
back to lead kettle for reuse. The lead sheath imparts a smooth or corrugated
finish which is characteristic of long length hose.
TESTING OF HOSE:
tests which are used for hose are:
check on appearance and finish;
angle and adhesion between the components;
physical properties of rubber components (initial and aged); and
test and burst pressure test.
cannot be used at high operating pressures in hydraulic systems without end
fittings. Couplings or end fittings must also be made to close dimensional
tolerances to resist high fluid pressures. The proof pressure test is conducted
at twice the working pressure. In the case of rotary oil drilling hose, for
example, the proof test pressure is 10,000 psi and 5000 psi in actual service,
while swirling and twisting in an oil rig. With couplings applied, a length of
rotary petroleum drilling hose can weigh 500 kg or more.
Couplings may be permanent (one piece) or re-usable (with connecting ends). Toi
basic components make up a hose connection-the hose attachement which holds on
to the hose end and the fitting connection which holds the hose assembly to the
point of transfer. Hose can be purchased in relatively long lengths or in
and assembly life is influenced by the following factors:
design of the hose;
design of the fitting/coupling;
technique of fitting;
technique of mounting the hose assembly onto a machine;
working conditions; and
usually specified in hydraulic hose specifications are the leakage test, burst
test, and impulse test.
test: This is a destructive test which is used for sampling only. Here, a hose
with end fitting is subjected to 70% of the minimum burst pressure for 5 min.,
then the pressure is reduced to zero after which the initial pressure is
reapplied for 5min. These should be absolutely no sign of leakage or any
evidence of failure in hydraulic hoses.
: This is a destructive test done on hose assemblies which are gradually
pressurized up to the burst pressure to check if any leaks or indication of
failure occurs below the burst pressure.
Test: In this test, hose assemblies are impulse on suitable test rigs with the
hose bent to its minimum recommended bend radius. Hoses less than 25mm nominal
size are bent within 90° or 180° and hoses of 25mm and above are bent 90°. The
test fluid is circulated at the specified temperature at the impulse rate of
30-100 cpm. the pressure wave applied may be in square or secant or half-omega
form. Specifications indicate the minimum number of impulse cycles to failure
tests include swelling, steam ageing, ozone and low temperature resistance,
concentricity, whip, pull-out, and salt-spray tests.
FAN AND V-BELTS
are used in automobiles for driving the fan pulley and the dynamo pulley, and
are designed to suit the layout of the automobile. V –belts are used for
transmitting power between V-Shaped pulley (sheaves) of short-centre distances.
The V-belt is chosen in preference to the flat belt since the wedging action
between V-belt and pulley grooves enables higher power transmittance.
Transmission systems may be standard, synchronous, variable speed, or
types of V-belts used for power transmission may be classified into wrapped, raw
edge (cogged or uncogged), V-ribbed (serpentine), or self-tensioning (maintenancefree)
categories (Fig. 17.12). The traditional V-belt is jacketted with woven fabric,
raw V-ribbed belt replaces sets of V-belts by a single belt tracked in a
serpentine fashion through the accessory sheaves, the tension being
automatically maintained by one single take up. The maintenance free V-belt is
self-tensioning during operation by means of frictional heat which causes the
reinforcing polyester cords to shrink.
fan belts and V-belt have the following components:
rubberized fabric jacket.
cord is held in place or supported by rubber in the finished belt, which also
transfers stress from one cord to another, of from the pulley to the cord. In
some belt section, it is usually to place the cord layer in neutral axis so that
the cord is less fatigued during run on drive.
cord is usually polyester or rayon, with some usage of steel or glass fibre for
special applications. Polyester and rayon have good dimensional stability,
fatigue resistance, and flexibility. A single layer of cord is used in smaller
cross-sections and multi-layers in larger sizes. The jacket helps in achieving
positive traction, flexibility wear resistance, and is resistant to oils.
and cushion (top) compounds are calendered into thin sheets of specified
thickness and batched on liners. These are not extruded, but built up from
sheet, in order to avoid a transverse joint.
jacket, cotton or blended cotton canvas is frictioned or spread with a suitable
rubber compound, and then cut into specified width and bias angle, and batched
on liner. Carcass building is done on single-drum or two-drum building
single-drum building machine essentially consists of an expandable metal drum,
over which a rubber sleeve is fitted. The drum is rotated, and a cylinder
composed of the components of V-belt is built over it. The calendered base
rubber is first built up to the required thickness. One layer of calendered
cushion rubber is applied over it and then the treated cord is spirally wound on
the drum at the specified pitch under tension. Thereafter, further layers of
cushion and filler rubber are built over it. Then the built up cylinder is slit
into rectangular sections of desired width with circular rotating knives and
taken out from the drum after collapsing the drum. The cut sections are skived
to trapezoidal shape with the help of two circular angularly placed rotating
knives. The raw belts are jacketted with rubberized fabric in a jacketing
belts are usually built on a two-drum machine, with the distance between the
drum axes being adjustable, both for setting the required length and also for
removal of the belt. Equal cord tensions are an important factor in achieving
minimum spread of belt lengths in the finished product. This is necessary in
industrial drives where several belts are fitted in parallel on multi-groove
pulleys. The cord elongation must be minimal. Predictable, and uniform.
Vulcanization: The processes usually employed for vulcanizing V-belts use ring
moulding, press moulding, or rotary vulcanizing method (Plate 16, Exhibit 17.10;
Moulding: Jacketed raw belts are placed between two rings of a multi-cavity
circular mould. The moulds with the belts are then bolted up axially and wrapped
with wet wrapping (impression fabric) cloth under tension so that it can exert
pressure on the top of the belt during cure. The wrapped mould is then placed
in an autoclave for vulcanization in open steam. After cure, the belts are
taken out from mould cavities. A separate set of rings has to be available for
each size-and cross-section of belt required.
Double-deck daylight: Presses may be used with V-grooved moulds for vulcanizing
long V-belts. The load, consisting of a number of belts, will be supported by
drums or pulley sets mounted so that tension can be maintained in the belts
during vulcanization. The mould ends are water cooled so that pressure can be
maintained in the hot rubber as it passes through a low viscosity stage before
vulcanization commences. The belts are rotated through the machine between
vulcanization steps so that sections are treated successively.
Vulcanizers: Consist of a rotatable grooved drum maintained at a high
temperature. The load of belt carcasses in hung over the drum, one belt to each
groove, and an apron covering about half the circumference of the drum is
applied at a high tension. The drum and the back of the apron are heated. The
drum speed is controlled so that the belt is vulcanized in half a revolution.
An auxiliary cold grooved roller maintains the tension or length of the belts
during the process with the rotary vulcanizer, one machine can be used for a
wide range of belt lengths (Fig 17.13). In the case of raw-edge belts, the
individual belts are cut from vulcanize sleeves.
MAIN TYPES OF POWER TRANSMMISION
Conventional V-belts are of standard sections (namely A, B, C, D, E, and Y, Z)
for specified top width and depth as given in Table 17.11
V-belt standard section
width (mm) Depth (mm)
section belts SPZ, SPA, and SPC have similar top widths to the sections Z, A, B,
C but with a lower top width to height ratio (1.2). With a narrower
cross-section, belts are smaller and weigh less; the sheaves are also smaller
and weigh less. The belts transmit more power at the same pulley diameter or it
is possible to achieve a required horsepower rating with fewer wedgebelts, or to
downsize drive motors, or to increase drive efficiency.
construction provides high flexibility for small sheaves or for drives with
relatively short centre distances. The cogs also provide a larger surface area
to dissipate heat and prolong belt life.
Variable speed belts have to fit between the flanges of the variable speed
pulleys, consequently they are much wider than the conventional V-belt. They
can be used on small pulley drives where the belt stresses are the greatest.
belts (also know as double V-belts) are designed for use on drives with one or
more reverse bends. They usually transmit power from both sides of the belt.
Sometimes V-belts in a drive can resonate into pronounced vibration, turn inside
out, and rapidly break up. To avoid this, a set of belts can be built with
multiple belts joined by a backing fabric that regulates belt travel so that all
ribs pull together as a single, perfectly matched group.
Mismatching of individual belts in a drive, misalignment, shock loads,
pulsation, and vibration can reduce drive efficiency. Open and V-belting is
used in applications where endless V-belts are difficult or impossible to
install. They are fastened and are usually employed as an emergency replacement
when the exact length to endless belt is not readily available.
V-belts are used on automobiles to drive the accessory equipment. One belt
drives all of the accessories and a spring loaded tensioning device eliminates
need for belt adjustment. The belt design incorporates the power transmission
capabilities of V-belt with flexibility of flat belts.
are several advantages in using a latex for producing rubber articles.
be shaped and worked easily and thus find certain application where dry rubber
or a rubber solution cannot be used. (2). It does not require any heavy or
expensive machinery. (3) Power requirement is less. (4) Certain latex processes
are amendable to continuous operation. (5) The physical properties of latex
articles are usually good. (6) Latex is safer to handle than rubber solutions.
disadvantages are: (a) Latex processing requires strict controls and
batch-to-batch adjustments due to variability in latex properties. (b) Latex
Processes are not suitable for making rubber goods of heavy or bulky nature. (c)
Fillers do not reinforce latex, they act as diluents reducing the product
properties. (d) Latex is usually more expensive then dry rubber of comparable
PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS
dry rubber compounding, the latex should be mixed with vulcanizing ingredients
in order to cure the dried film. Other additives like anti-oxidant, softeners,
and fillers are also added to latex to impart the desired properties in the
finished articles. In compounding latex, the fillers and vulcanizing
ingredients must be in the form of small particles completely wetted.
Otherwise, coagulation or quick settling out of the powders from latex will
occur. Both grinding and wetting are carried out by means of pebbles and is
mechanically rotated. Grinding of the powders takes place between the pletely
wet. The efficiency of ball milling depends on the size of the pebbles, amount
of pebbles and water used, and speed of rotation. At least 24 hours is usually
necessary to prepare a satisfactory dispersion by ball milling.
ensure uniform mixing of compounding ingredients and to avoid subsequent
settling out, water-soluble ingredients are added to latex as aqueous solutions
and water insoluble ingredients (except for fillers) as aqueous dispersions or
zinc oxide, accelerator and solid anti-oxidant dispersions are prepared in a
ball mill, vibro-energy mill, or attritor. A suitable general purpose
formulation for variety of compounding ingredients is given below:
mill for 24-48 hours. The dispersion is checked once or twice during milling to
deal with any problems that may arise, such as, excessive foaming, which will
reduce dispersion efficiency. Certain anti-oxidants, such as substituted
phenols may require a different formulation such as
Sodium dodecyl sulphate
Anti-oxidant dispersions frequently became viscous on milling due to foaming or
wetting effects. Dilution to 40% of active ingredient or use small amounts of
antifoaming or wetting agents will overcome the problem.
compounding ingredients which are not soluble in water, such as certain
accelerators, anti-oxidants, and plasticizers, are normally added to latex as
oil-in-water emulsions. Emulsions are prepared using a high-speed stirrer or
homogenizer to a general formulation of the type given as follows.
Liquid compounding ingredient
30% Potassium oleate solution
liquid and surfactant may be added to water in a slow stream until a
satisfactory particle size has been obtained. Alternatively, in the case of
viscous liquid ingredients, the water may be added to the oil phase gradually to
give first a water-in-oil emulsion and then an oil-in-water emulsion.
are usually added to the latex compound as aqueous slurries. They essentially
act as diluents and have the effect of reducing the strength properties of the
vulcanizate, unlike dry rubber compounding where “reinforcing” fillers are
STABILITY OF LATEX COMPOUNDS
to further concentration, the addition of fillers and other compounding
ingredients, the raw latex has to be stabilized agaist conagulation. This is
done with 0.25% caustic soda made up as a 5% solution in water. The addition of
zinc oxide to the latex is generally left until the last, as the oxide a
thickening and destabilizing effect.
added a latex in the presence of ammonia, a small amount of zinc oxide dissolves
in accordance with the equations.
ZnO + 2NH3 + 2NH4
+ (4-x) NH3,
= 0 to 3.
The lower zinc ammine ions, such as Zn (NH3)2
from uncharged compounds (zinc ammine soaps) of low solubility by reaction with
the fatty acid soaps at the surface of the rubber particles. Typically, this
leads to a slow increase in the viscosity of the latex (zinc oxide thickening)
accompanied by a loss in mechanical stability. Therefore, further addition of a
stabilizer such as anionic or non-ionic surfactant is usually necessary.
important latex manufacturing processes, and e.g. production of dipped gloves,
moulded foam, and latex manufacturing processes, and e.g. production of dipped
product. In the course of gelation, the rubber particles aggregate into a
three-dimensional network without separation of the aqueous phase, which is
retained in the interstices of the network. There are three basic methods of
effecting gelation involving (a) use of acids or acid-producing substances; (b)
use of calcium salts; and (c) heat latex thread, and in the Dunlop process for
moulded foam rubber. Calcium salts are polyed in dipping compounds and foam
manufacture. However, certain processes, such as adhesives, do not require a
of Latex Products
preparation of rubber articles from latex is briefly described in Table 17012
Dipping Balloons, gives, nipples,
fountain pen sacks, etc.
(i) Heat sensitization Foamed latex sponge,
(ii) Plaster casting Moulded toys, etc.
Spreading, doubling, Toys
Impregration Coated fabrics, paper, etc.
Manufacture of latex foam The manufacturing process for latex foam essentially
consists of: (I) Compounding of latex; (ii) expanding (foaming) to a desired
volume; (iii) setting (gelling) the rubber particles; and (iv) vulcanizing.
are mainly two methods of making latex foam, namely, (a) Dunlop process and (b)
Talalay process, which differ mainly in foaming and gelling method.
process Table 17.13 gives the typical formulations for the Dunlop Process for
The Dunlop process for
making latex foam
A typical formulation
Compounding Parts by weight